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迁移学习经典论文Chapter 28 - Neural Networks Part I Unsupervised Learning.pdf 11页

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C H A P T E R 28 Neural Networks Part I: Unsupervised Learning 28.1. GOALS OF THIS CHAPTER This chapter has two goals that are of equal importance. The first goal is to become famil- iar with the general concept of unsupervised neural networks and how they may relate to certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. The second goal is to learn how to apply neural networks using Neural Networks Toolbox built into the MATLABW software to address a particular problem. 28.2. BACKGROUND Neural networks have assumed a central role in a variety of fields. The nature of this role is fundamentally dualistic. On the one hand, neural networks can provide powerful models of elementary processes in the brain, including processes of plasticity and learning. On the other hand, they provide solutions to a broad range of specific problems in applied engi- neering, such as speech recognition, financial forecasting, or object classification. 28.2.1. But What Is a Neural Network? Despite the “biological” sounding name, neural networks are actually quite abstract com- puting structures. In fact, they are sometimes referred to as artificial neural networks. Essen- tially, they consist of rather simple computational elements that are connected to each other in various ways to serve a certain function. The architecture of these networks was inspired by mid- to late-20th century notion of brain function, hence, the term neural. At its conceptual core, a unit in a neural network consists of three things (see Figure 28.1): 307 308 28. NEURAL NETWORKS PART I: UNSUPERVISED LEARNING i1 b i2

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